Saturday, May 23, 2020
How Steinbeck presents the relationship between George and Lennie in particular at the beginning and the end The relationship between Lennie and George is very close throughout the book. Of Mice and Men is set in the 1930s depression years in America. This means that their relationship was under a lot of strain. It was unusual in those times to be able to sustain friendships because life was all about living for the moment after America s great depression. They are in a place called the Salinas River near Soledad. John Steinbeck begins the novel Of Mice and Men with a picturesque description of the location where the reader is first introduced to the characters of George Milton and Lennie Small. The opening section of theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Lennie and GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s dream is presented by Steinbeck in order to convey their relationship: Ã¢â¬Å"George. Tell me. Please, George. Like you done beforeÃ¢â¬ This dream cannot exist without friendship. This is most demonstrable in the relationship between George and Lennie. Without the other, neither character would be able to maintain the dream. Lennie is constantly asking George to Ã¢â¬Å"tell about how itÃ¢â¬â¢s gonna beÃ¢â¬ . The constant repetition of the way things will be is what keeps the dream alive in Lennie. However, George needs Lennie just as much as Lennie needs him, which is apparent at the end of the novel. When George kills Lennie, he also kills the friendship, which results in the death of the dream within himself. Friendship is an underlying factor in the dreams of others as well. From anger and remorse to a close friendship, Steinbeck portrays many different aspects to Lennie and GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship. It is the main theme in this novel and stands out as a clear point the author is trying to make. Their dream gives the reader an image of peacefulness between the two, they Ã¢â¬Å"got each otherÃ¢â¬ and living Ã¢â¬Å"offa the fatta the lanÃ¢â¬ ,Ã¢â¬â¢ is their aim. They know that they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to achieve this without each other, Lennie needs George to plan the dream and George needs Lennie to keep it alive. In the end, the obstacles that Lennie has created are so terribleShow MoreRelatedOf Mice and Men - George and Lennie2356 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesHow does Steinbeck present the characters of George and Lennie? During the Great Depression of the 1930s when America was plunged into financial crisis following the Wall Street Crash of October 1929, levels of unemployment and poverty were at an all time high. In this ear life was a struggle and the mentality of society became survival of the fittest, every man for himself. Migrant workers toured the country in search of labour to provide money for food typically sent to relatives living on theRead MoreExplore the Ways in Which John Steinbeck Presents He Character of Lennie in Ã¢â¬Ëof Mice and MenÃ¢â¬â¢2183 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesExplore the ways in which John Steinbeck presents he character of Lennie in Ã¢â¬ËOf Mice and MenÃ¢â¬â¢ In this essay I am going to be writing about one of the main characters in John SteinbeckÃ¢â¬â¢s novella Ã¢â¬ËOf Mice and MenÃ¢â¬â¢. The story portrays the travels and arising problems of two migrant workers who share an uncommon friendship for the time and environment in which the novella is set. Lennie Small is the character I will be exploring and I will start off by giving a detailed explanation of his physicalRead MoreAnalyzing The Bonds Of Friendship Within Of Mice And Men2195 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesthe Bonds of Friendship Within Of Mice and Men Ã¢â¬Å"Of mice and menÃ¢â¬ by John Steinbeck narrates a story of two friends, George and Lennie, and their lives together as farm workers in California in the 1930s. Steinbeck chose the setting to empathize the effects a simple friendship can have on someone living during that time period. In the 30s, in California, jobs were hard to get and most jobs for unlettered men like George and Lennie, was farm work. Because income was scarce, farm workers rarely had companionsRead MoreOf Mice and Men - the Importance of George Essay1858 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesSteinbecks novel, Of Mice and Men, the uniqueness of George, as a character, is already noticeable. He is described as small and quick, dark of face, with restless eyes and sharp strong features and has an obvious dominance over the relationship between Lennie and himself. This lets the reader know from a very early stage in the book that George is different, and probably the essential character. Georges character seems to be used by Steinbeck to reflect the major themes of the novel: loneliness
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1542 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2019/05/07 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Human Trafficking Essay Did you like this example? To the dismay of many people, human trafficking is a huge problem in America. Most people would like you to believe that things like that dont happen here, that is something that happens in other countries, poorer countries, not the U.S. of A. It has become such an epidemic here, that it can no longer be ignored. Though it is currently difficult to know the exact number of people that are victim to human trafficking due to it being a hidden crime, the US is currently ranked in the top 10 destinations for human trafficking. (Hepburn, Simon 2010) I would like to define human trafficking, as it is understood by Homeland Security so when it is mentioned it will be comprehended the same way throughout, Human trafficking is modern-day slavery and involves the use of force, fraud, or coercion to obtain some type of labor or commercial sex act. (dhs.gov) Though history would like for you to believe that slavery was abolished in 1838 after the American Civil War and the Emanci pation Proclamation that was signed by Abraham Lincoln. Unfortunately, none of that is true. There is more human slavery in the world today, than ever before. It is considered a low risk, high reward enterprise since it is hard to prove and convict compared to the amount of money that is made from it. One major difference between then and now would be that back then, human slaves were property and worth a monetary value. Whereas now there is no monetary value to the person, only what they can do to make the trafficker money. Once the slave becomes of no use, whether it is from health issues or an undesirable age, they are no longer making money, so they are easily replaced. Human trafficking is thought to be the third largest criminal activity following closely behind gun and drug trafficking. (Logan, Walker, Hunt 2009) It reportedly generates a profit of $32 billion every year, (dosomething.org) Though it seems that sex trafficking gets more attention in the media due t o it being more overdramatized; labor trafficking is more common and harder to prove in a court of law. One huge misconception about human trafficking is that a person has to be transported from one country to another to be considered trafficking, however, it can take place all in one country. There is an estimated 100,000-150,000 people that the US government believes to be kept in slavery here in America. (arkofhopeforchildren.org) Common factors that lead people to become victims is often extreme poverty, they may be born in to, they may be runaways living on the streets making them easy targets for kidnapping, or they may be tricked. When someone has grown up in poverty and they are offered an opportunity to either make a better life for themselves or their children, it makes them susceptible to any promises made of a better life. Often parents in poverty are persuaded with hope. Hope of a better life, better education, or even a better life here in America, they will se nd their child away with these strangers or companies, thinking they are doing their best for their children. Not fully understanding that once that child has been separated from his or her family, communication ties will be severed, and the child will be stuck with their captors. It has been documented that families have sold their younger children because they could not afford to raise them and they would use the money made to finish raising the older child, or children, that were of working age. Some victims have fallen prey to the darkness that is in the internet, people answering personal ads, and claiming to fall in love with that person over time. Once that person has the victim believing that love is the driving force, the victim will do anything to keep that love, even if it means sleeping with Johns for money. Runaways are easy prey for human traffickers due to their vulnerability. The traffickers watch, evaluate patterns of runaways living on the streets, then the trafficker will have a better idea of what could be the selling point to get that victim to go with them, it could be food, shelter, or promises of an endless supply of drugs. It is currently estimated that over 2,000 children a day go missing in America, that is approximately 750,000 per year. Of those numbers, only 24 percent are taken by strangers, otherwise known as stranger kidnapping, which gives you approximately 175,000 that go missing or possibly taken for human trafficking per year. (arkofhopeforchildren.org). That is just children, that doesnt include women and men that are also taken for slavery. Many of the victims believe that they are taking legitimate jobs like childcare, construction, or landscaping just to name a few. They may even come to America on work Visas, but once they get here, their Visas, passports, or identifying documentation gets confiscated. They are then lead to believe that if they work hard, make enough money for their captors, they can get their documents back. Some human trafficking may appear as a legitimate business of helping people find employment or relocation for employment. Contracts are made up by the company and signed by the victim, not fully aware of what they may have just got themselves into, but since a contract was signed, they fear it cannot be undone. Once victims have themselves in a human trafficking situation they may be afraid to leave. Captors often use threats of harming family members, deportation if they are in America illegally, being put in jail. Some victims may have the lack of knowledge about alternatives, they may be kept in isolation, they suffer physical abuse, or psychological confinement. Unfortunately, in some countries it is believed that some governments or law enforcement agencies are involved or have knowledge of ongoing human trafficking events and are paid nicely to look the other way. So, if someone is here illegally, they may have several fears that prevent the m from seeking help from the law enforcement. They could be afraid of deportation, fear of not being believed, or fear that if they ask law enforcement for help, they will be turned back over to their captors and punished severely. Also, if they are involved in illegally activities here in America, they may fear being punished for collateral misconduct. Other victims may not leave the situation that they are in because they have no money, no family, nowhere else to go, which may seem worse than the situation that they are in currently. Traffickers often use shame to control their victims. So even if the victim were to get free, they have so much self-shame, they believe their families will disown them or potentially not love them anymore because of what they have done, even though the things they have done were against their will. Sometimes victims may not even realize they are victims of human trafficking and continue living the life they have grown accustom to. Its hard to believe that this crime goes unnoticed more than any other crime, since no many people are involved. What makes this crime different though is that it is hard to identify. Especially if law enforcement isnt trained on what to look for, because they themselves dont believe it could be happening in their community. People that may be here illegally may fear there will be a prejudice held against them because they arent American. They may believe they do not have rights here because they are not American. Victims that are found during law enforcement raids are often deported or arrested without a thorough evaluation about whether or no they are trafficking victims. Not only does this fail to protect and assist potential victims of trafficking but also the deportation of critical witnesses (i.e., trafficking victims) significantly weakens the case against their traffickers. (Hepburn Simon, 2010) Without educating our communities, our children, local law enforcement, along wi th the legality system this crime will not go away. It will not go away even if we turn a blind eye, or pretend it doesnt happen in our country. We must start educating people and talking about the dangers that lurk in the world. If something seems too good to be true, it most likely is too good. Children need to be taught to trust their instincts, maybe even learn to fear strangers, like it was taught to me, stranger danger. No one is truly safe from becoming a victim of human trafficking. Especially if they threaten the lives or wellbeing of families, most people will do anything to protect their families. Society has to stop being afraid of law enforcement. They were always known as the good guys and now somehow all of that has changed over time. The government needs to set a standard so that law enforcement agencies dont have a lack of knowledge about identifying crime of human trafficking, most agencies dont have specific policies, procedures, and training addressing human trafficking. (Wilson, Walsh, Kleuber, 2006) Those agencies that do have it dont have a standardization, which could also complicate taking these cases to trail. If there was more of a black and white standard, then maybe there could be a higher conviction rating. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Human Trafficking Is A Huge Problem In America" essay for you Create order
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Another source of error is that possibly the ice and salt did not get to a low enough temperature, but again I would think this would alter the results giving a higher temperature instead of a lower one. Something that would give too low a temperature is if the thermometer bulb was directly on the test tube, and the temperature decreased because of the ice/salt mixture instead of the alcohol/water mixture. This is what probably happened in my experiment. We will write a custom essay sample on CHEM Lab or any similar topic only for you Order Now Another thing that would cause the temperature to be too low is contamination in the alcohol, contributing more solute to the solution than expected. Using table salt and road salt, how would you design an experiment to determine which of these affected the boiling point of water the most? Which substance do you expect will affect it the most and why? Procedure: Weight out 1 g of salt and put it in ml of water in a test tube. Put a thermometer in and put the test tube over a Bunsen burner, recording the temperature till it boils. Assuming equal masses (1 g each) of salt, the table salt should affect it more because sodium is smaller than calcium and there would be more moles of table salt in g than there would be of road salt. Conclusion: Freezing point depression occurs when a solute is dissolved in a solvent. The solute makes the freezing point of the solvent decrease. How much the freezing point decreases depends on the immolate of the solute. The higher the immolate, the more the freezing point will decrease. The solute molecules interfere with the solvent freezing, and so the solution will have to get colder to freeze than the pure substance would. There was a large percent error in this experiment. There were a number of things the test tube and got too cold from the ice/salt mixture on the outside of the test be. Some other sources of error are measuring the alcohol or the water incorrectly. The graduated cylinder is not very accurate when measuring small amounts such as 2 ml. Some of the alcohol could have evaporated during the experiment since it is so volatile. There could have been some contamination in the alcohol, such as other solutes, that would contribute to the decrease in freezing point. I used 91% spoilsport alcohol instead of 70%, and this may be a cause of error as well. The formula holds only for relatively small amounts of solute, and maybe the 91% was too much. This experiment did not turn out as well as I had hoped. Perhaps if there were a way to keep the thermometer off of the test tube itself so that it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t get so cold, that would be a better procedure. Perhaps if you could cork the test tube (if it were a large enough one to fit a cork in it) with a hole for the thermometer, then the cork would hold the thermometer in the solution instead of having it touch the sides of the test tube. No matter the numerical results of the experiment, I did learn a lot more about freezing point depression than I had known previously. That aspect of the experiment was successful. How to cite CHEM Lab, Papers
Saturday, May 2, 2020
Question: Discuss about theResearch Critique for Infection Prevention Behaviours. Answer: Research Critique: Research critique is the critique who is getting involved to find out weakness of the research article. All the time a research article contributes an endeavour to find out a solution through the research activity. The solution may not be get reached all the time but the effort need to be authentic a research critique took and endeavour to jugged the authenticity of the research enterprise and offer suggestion to the future enterprises in that same direction by finding out the lacunas or the shortcoming of the previous research (Glanz,. and Bishop, 2010). A critical appreciation of the article Infection prevention as a show: A qualitative study of nurses infection prevention behaviours contributed by Carole Jackson ,Karen Lowton, Peter Griffiths will help to develop a proper understanding to reader as well as the future researcher regarding the effectiveness of the article and its exact contribution to the selected field. At first it is important to adopt a perspective to judge the article from the perspective of the hypothesis of the research. The key issue of this research is to find out the exact nature of non compliance and inappropriate behaviour. The hypothesis of this research is non compliance and inappropriate behaviour is one of the major cause of the dispersion of infection( Glass,. and McAtee, 2006) The research took an attempt to articulate the exact nature of non compliance and inappropriate behaviour. According to this context it can be said that the researchers remain focus to the stated hypothesis all throughout the research process. The research findings are consistent with the research direction given by the hypothesis. Aim of the research to is to find out the root causes of the dispersion of infection through the human behaviour. In this research the researchers selected a particular community for their research. The nurses are the health care professional with required qualification and professional training it also the truth that they are the people with interact with infectious person consciously. From that context one assumption can be made on the basis of vigilance this community soups to retain some professional code. The focus community of the researchers doesnt represent the mainstream population of the society. In research hypothesis there is a indication towar ds the generic behavioural practice of the common people but the health care professionals do not belong to that category(Whitley, Kite, and Adams, 2012). From this observation it can be said that the research findings may not represent the exact scenario of the behavioural practice of the common masses. The finding and the discussion section of this research article made an elaborate discussion regarding the practice of health care professional and also incorporated some subjective statements belong to them but didnt made a single indication towards the Psychological theory of Cognitive dissonance and the concept of defence mechanism. The appropriation of behaviour is largely depend up on human psychology rather than social process of reinforcement. The researcher adopted an exclusive angle towards a certain trained and qualified community and eluded the social reality. The infection may get dispersed through the inappropriate behaviour may belong to the any corner of the human com munity not from the health care professional only (Parens, Chapman,. and Press, 2006). The introduction of the article echoed the utterance made in the hypothesis and attempted to justify the stand point adopted by the researchers. The major contradiction of the whole depiction is the hypothesis described the result of certain behavioural trait in an uncontrolled atmosphere. Uncontrolled atmosphere always governs by norm that regulate society but the health care setting is a controlled atmosphere that is regulated by the code of standardization and subjected to audit on the demand of the situation. The possibility and practice of reinforcement is plausible here. Introduction attempted to justify a rational stance for an irrational choice. In research finding the issue of rationalising the irrational, got reflected the research made an in-depth analysis of the behavioural detail of the nurse community. In this course of research the researchers have taken interviews of the nurse and health professionals and collected their behavioural details for the regular practice. T he question of compliance arises in that point of time. The mechanical nature of human behaviour is lying beneath the regular movement of the individuals (Patton, 2005. ). The whole research should get governs by the psychological theories rather than sporadic information regarding the practice of health care. The major aim of any researches enterprise is to generalise the findings of research. Controlled environment is needed for certain research practice that demands environmental intervention to achieve the findings but if the controlled environment is the base of the research the findings of the research cannot work as a generalised articulation of certain common behavioural trait the whole research has been confined within certain community and representing the common trait of human behaviour The point of contr5adiction is coming out of that. The research is putting emphasise on the qualitative sampling rather than quantitative one. In order to find out the qualitative informat ion the research put more emphasis on the interview and the personal experiences of the individual.. This process will not articulate the common trend of practice. In finding the researchers indicated few points those belong to the common human nature. The issue of rationalising the irrational activity of some one or finding out irrationality in the behavioural approach of the other people rather than self are the common manifestation of the concept of cognitive dissonance. If the researcher adopt the process of Psychoanalysis rather qualitative questioner the approach of an individual will articulate the truth that can be coon and the generalization of the finding can be taken place that kindle the possibility of the farter research (Schulsinger,Mednick,. and Knop, 2012). Conclusion: In conclusion it can be said that the behavioural inconsistency not only caused the social disorder but public health disorder too that is the reason this type of research endeavour can add value to the cognitive practice of the academia. The cardinal goal of these cognitive practice should be the application of the cognitive finding for the betterment of the human life that is the reason the applied side of the research should get incorporated. Reference: Glanz, K. and Bishop, D.B., 2010. The role of behavioral science theory in development and implementation of public health interventions. Annual review of public health, 31, pp.399-418. Glass, T.A. and McAtee, M.J., 2006. Behavioral science at the crossroads in public health: extending horizons, envisioning the future. Social science medicine, 62(7), pp.1650-1671. Whitley, B.E., Kite, M.E. and Adams, H.L., 2012. Principles of research in behavioral science. Routledge. Parens, E., Chapman, A.R. and Press, N., 2006. Wrestling with behavioral genetics: science, ethics, and public conversation. JHU Press. Patton, M.Q., 2005. Qualitative research. John Wiley Sons, Ltd. Schulsinger, F., Mednick, S.A. and Knop, J. eds., 2012. Longitudinal research: Methods and uses in behavioral science (Vol. 1). Springer Science Business Media.
Friday, March 6, 2020
Generations of Economic Reforms in India Essays Generations of Economic Reforms in India Essay Generations of Economic Reforms in India Essay Promotion of private sector De-reservation De-licensing Abolition of MRS.. Limit Abolition of the compulsion of the phased-production and conversion of loans into shares Simplifying environmental laws 2) Public Sector Reforms Disinvestment Corporations 3) External Sector reforms Abolition of quantitative restrictions on Imports Floating currency regime of exchange rate Full current account convertibility Reforms In the capital account Foreign Investment Liberal foreign exchange management (FEM.. Instead of FEAR) ) Financial Sector reforms 5) Tax Reforms Simplifying Broader Tax net Modernizing Checking evasion Result: Change from Command economy to Market driven economy. Didnt produce the desired results, hence need for 2nd round of reforms were felt. 2nd Generation Reforms (2000-01 onwards): 1) Factor Market Reforms (Fem..) Background: Before this, under Administered Pricing Mechanism (AMP): Petroleum, Sugar, fertilizers, Drugs, etc. A major section of these p roducts were produced by the private sectorhindered profitability. Considered as the backbone for the success of reforms In India. Dismantling of the Administered Pricing Mechanism (AMY Petroleum segment: Only Kerosene OLL and LAP remained under AMP while petrol, diesel, lubricants were deregulated. Income tax paying barnacles wont get sugar under TAPS. Fertilizers: Only urea under AMP. Many drugs were also phased out. Petroleum Fem.. Still continuing. Greater functional autonomy. Free leverage to the capital market. International tie-ups and Greenfield ventures. Disinvestment (strategic). 3) Reforms in the Government and Public institutions Also known as Administrative Reforms. Change in the role of Covet. From Controller to facilitator. ) Legal sector reforms Abolishing outdated and contradictory laws. Reforms in EPIC, Crop, Labor Laws, Company laws. Enacting suitable legal provisions for new areas like Cyber laws, etc. 5) Reforms in the Critical areas Reforms in the Infrastructure sector. Reforms in the agriculture, and agriculture extension. Reforms in social infrastructure-education and healthcare. Two segments in this type of reforms: a) Factor Market Reforms, b) a broader dimension of reforms biz. Corporate farming, RD in the agriculture sector (till now by the Covet only. But active participation of private sector felt. , irrigation, inclusive education and the health Some other areas that were addressed during the 2nd generation reforms: care. ) Increase in importance of the states as initiator of reforms and Centre to play a supporting role. 2) Fiscal consolidation in the form of FROM Act, 2003 and Fiscal Responsibility Acts (FRATS) by the states. 3) Greater tax devolution to the states. 4) More focus on the social sector especially-healthcare and education. 3rd Generation Reforms: Announced on the margin of launching the tenth plan I. E. 2002-2007. Provision for fully functional Penchant Raja Institutions (Pros). The Generation Reforms: Not an official generation of reform in India. Early 2002: A fully Information Technology enabled India. A two way connection between the economic reforms and IT with each one reinforcing the other. : Financial and Banking Sector Reforms Financial Sector Reforms: Background: A high level Committee on Financial System (CIFS) also known as Narcissism Committee I was set up on Gauge 1991 to examine all aspects relating to structure, organization, functioning, and procedures of the financial system introduced in the fiscal 1992-93. The recommendations were aimed at: ) Greater operational flexibility. 2) Internal autonomy of Sobs in their decision making. 3) Greater degree of professionalism in banking operation. Recommendations of CIFS: 1) On Directed Investment: Advised the RIB to use Moms increasingly instead of relying on CAR. RIB should pay interest on CAR of bank at a specific rate. The Covet. Should move towards market-based borrowing programmer so that the banks get benefits on their SSL investment. 2) On Directed Credit Programmer: Talks about Priority Sector Lending (SSL) by the banks. Should be phased out gradually. No more support required for priority sectors as they are already mature. Should not be a regular programmer- only in extraordinary cases such as weaker sections. Should be made temporary and not permanent. Should include only the weakest sections of the rural economy such as marginal farmers, rural artisans, village and cottage industries, tiny sector, etc. Redefined SSL 10% of the aggregate bank credit. Composition of SSL should be reviewed every 3 years. 3) On the Structure of Interest Rates: Interest rates to be determined by market forces. All controls on interest rates on deposits and lending to be withdrawn. SSL concessions and RIDE subsidies to be phased out. RIB: Sole authority to simplify the structure of interest rates. Bank rate: The anchor rate; All other interest rates to be closely linked to it. 4) On the Structural Reorganization of the Bank: Substantial reduction in the number of Sobs- mergers and acquisitions- greater efficiency. Dual control of RIB and DES, MOB should be withdrawn; RIB: should be the primary agency of regulation. Sobs: To be made free and autonomous. RIB to examine all guidelines and directives issued to Banks in the light of independence and autonomy of banks. ASS: Radical change in work technology and culture. Appointment of CM: Must be as per professionalism and integrity. An independent panel should be involved. 5) Asset Reconstruction Companies/ Fund: To tackle the menace of Naps. The Committee directly blamed the Gold and MOB for the sad state of affairs. Banking Sector Reforms: DCE 1997: Another committee set up on Banking Sector Reforms. Chairman: M. Narcissism Major Suggestions: Need for a stronger banking system; Mergers of the Sobs and Fails; The stronger ones to be merged while weaker ones to be closed. Tier banking structure suggested after mergers. ) Tier 1: 2-3 banks of international orientation. 2) Tier 2: 8-10 banks of national orientation. 3) Tier 3: A large number of local banks. Tier 1 tier 2: To serve the corporate sector. Higher Capital to Risk Weighted Adequacy Ratio (CAR). Budgetary recapitulations of the Sobs not viable and hence to be abandoned. Provision for Loan recovery to be strengthened. Naps for all banks suggested to be cut down. Rationalization of branches and staffs of Sobs. License to new private banks. Banks board to be duplicities. Board for Financial Regulation and Supervision to be set up for banks, financial institutions and NBS.
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Corporate Reporting - Essay Example Rather, it is important that other key steps and approaches are taken towards the need to harness all the components of corporate reporting. In this respect, research has actually pointed to the fact that the regulation of corporate reporting is the key to achieving such benefits (Lang, Raedy and Wilson, 2006). Generally, a regulated corporate reporting is one that is taken from the institutional level to the political level in that it is given governmental backing in the regulation of basic rules governing finance and accounting principles (Coffee, 2007). This is normally done when the central government wants to have a better view and understanding of what the various institutions, mostly financial institutions and ministries, are doing in their own rights to contribute to gross domestic product growth. Though many have said that corporate reporting could exist and be of benefit without the need of any regulation of it, there are many more that have refused to reason like this, cit ing a number of reasons why a regulation of corporate reporting is necessary. Focus on people and not on data A major criticism that has gone against corporate reporting is the fact that individual institutions that have been left to manage and control corporate reporting only focus on people, the institutional structures and professions, instead of focusing on actual data collection (Kothari, Ramanna and Skinner, 2009). What this means is that control has often been over the people put in charge of corporate reporting and the mindsets, culture and agenda instead of on the actual evidence they gather in terms of data. For example, instead of ensuring that the financial data that a bank supervisory produces is authentic and empirical, focus has now shifted to whether or not the people involved in the reporting have the requisite qualifications, whether they operate according to organizational culture, and whether they have their methodologies matching with corporate practice. While a ll of these checks are done, the critical need of financial data is abandoned, thereby denying authorities of the privilege of getting the actual outcomes desired of corporate reporting. As an alternative to this crisis, development of regulation for corporate reporting is suggested so that the key role of supervision would not be in the hands of the institutions who undertake the corporate reporting. This is like saying that it is important to get a different outfit to police the policeman (Demsetz, 1969). When political regulations set in, focus is not lost as there are sufficient manpower and logistics to monitor both the institutions and the data produced by institutions. System within a system Another problem that makes the development of regulation for corporate reporting important is that the system has been criticized to be a system within a system and not an independent system on its own. What this means is that there are often parallel reporting systems that are run in add ition and at concurrent times with corporate reporting (Dye and Sunder, 2001). Once this happens, the attention needed to ensure strict monitoring, and evaluation is denied. Again, it makes institutions lose focus on which areas to exactly look out for in the analysis of the success of the financial environment. The Charted Institute of Management Accountants, CIMA (2010), laments on the situation, saying that there have been the inclusion of in-house systems to corporate reporting Ã¢â¬Å"such as those supporting internal management information, regulated financial reporting, investor relations or voluntary sustainability reportsÃ¢â¬ (p. 6). Technically, it would realized the various financial regulations outlined by the institute are subsidiary aspects of corporate repo