Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Engineering - Sustainability and Innovation Assignment

Building - Sustainability and Innovation - Assignment Example The spot ought to radiate warmth and certainty. Supportable development is in this manner basic to the financial, social and ecological structure holding the system together. Evaluations recommend that in creating nations about 40% of the human populace would be living in urban areas contrasted with 20% that was available in 1950. (Practical Building and Construction, 2003) Around 40,000 sq.km of cultivable land is being urbanized each year. The most noticeably awful zones that will be hit are the creating nations where framework blast is coming up in the following barely any years. It is comprehended that the structure plans are fit for enduring 80-100 years on a normal. It is in this way significant that a development having such huge scope life ought to be worked in a practical way with the goal that fits into the general condition. It very well may be contended that while lands that are utilized for water system being changed over to solid wildernesses would definitely prompt los s of cultivating and adversy affect the natural pecking order the world over, ascent in development movement would prompt increment in occupations in the development part. Assessments demonstrate that around 3 trillion US dollars are being siphoned into the development area yearly and this records for 10% of the world GDP. (Moavenzadeh F, 1994) An expected 111million laborer of which 74% have a place with the creating nations and of this 28% occupied with mechanical advancement is the thing that has been discovered per the last registration. (Supportable Building and Construction, 2003) While it can't be contended that development is a division that produces huge scope business, its disadvantage is absence of employer stability and individual medical problems of working staff. This area is likewise prevalently male and since the greater part of the employments are in the chaotic division their issues are not appropriately tended to. A study led in UK demonstrated that around 600 spe cialists kick the bucket yearly because of asbestos inebriation, 30% endure skin issue and around 40% have bone and tendon breaks. (Supportable Building and Construction, 2003) About 55000 laborers pass on every year because of development related mishaps. Condition related episodes are the following significant reason for concern which has reinforced the call all the more unequivocally for manageable development. Deforestation and illicit mining with sparse regard to the nature is unsafe to the earth. Aside from this vitality a lot of vitality is additionally devoured in moving these crude materials from its zone of inception to other creating nations. (Bossink and H.J Brouwers, 1996) An idea presented in 1970 called the exemplified vitality attempts to figure the whole vitality that would be required right from its beginning stage, transportation lastly till the development stage. The exertion consistently is to constrain the measure of exemplified vitality so one can move towards practical development. The significant wellspring of nursery outflows is typically for the creation of concrete which involves a lot of non-renewable energy source consuming. Evaluations recommend that by 1950 the CO2 discharges would associate with multiple times the current sum. (Economical Building and Construction, 2003) It has additionally been proposed that in light of a legitimate concern for the earth it is best that a more prominent structure thickness is better contrasted with a low structure thickness. This would involve

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Bill of Rights, 1st Amendment and Internet Hate Speech essays

Bill of Rights, first Amendment and Internet Hate Speech papers Despise Speech is a territory in current society that has taken on assorted angles because of the changing gauges of right social conduct, and the absence of exact enactment managing this subject. As of late the most discussed subject around there has been the control of Hate discourse on the Web. This subject requires and is inciting genuine conversation as the Internet is so far an obscure element with regards to control laws also, presents because of its inborn characteristics of secrecy a test to law Directing the Internet manages such touchy issues as encroachment of human and individual rights. I feel genuine new issues have emerged from absence of enactment of the web and correction is important to this situation. Guideline of certain Internet material is required to secure the qualities the Bill of Right and the First Amendment advocate. The American majority rule government is interesting for the assurance of its progenitors to ensure human rights at all degrees of society. The constitution has needed to experience numerous phases of advancement and correction be that as it may, on paper the pattern has consistently been to ensure all people and the residents of the United States from the abuse of the state or some other type of power without due reason' and the procedure of the law'. The Bill of Rights was detailed in the late 1700's and structured so that the forces of the national government were constrained. (Glasser, 1991) Initially comprising of ten revisions a few have been included from that point forward. The Bill of Rights was anyway simply the rules, and usage on a significant number of its guidelines didn't happen consistently in all states or indeed, even until a century later. (Glasser, 1991) The First Amendment expresses that: Congress will make no law regarding a foundation of religion, or denying the free exercise thereof ensuring that the gover... <!

Sunday, August 9, 2020

How the Placebo Effect Works in Psychology

How the Placebo Effect Works in Psychology Basics Print How the Placebo Effect Works in Psychology By Kendra Cherry facebook twitter Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. Learn about our editorial policy Kendra Cherry Reviewed by Reviewed by Amy Morin, LCSW on October 01, 2019 facebook twitter instagram Amy Morin, LCSW, is a psychotherapist, author of the bestselling book 13 Things Mentally Strong People Dont Do, and a highly sought-after speaker. Learn about our Wellness Board Amy Morin, LCSW Updated on January 13, 2020 solidcolours / Getty Images More in Psychology Basics Psychotherapy Student Resources History and Biographies Theories Phobias Emotions Sleep and Dreaming In This Article Table of Contents Expand What Is the Placebo Effect? Use in Medical Research Advantages Examples Use in Psychology Experiments Causes How Powerful Is It? View All Back To Top The mind can have a powerful influence on the body, and in some cases can even help the body heal. The mind can even sometimes trick you into believing that a fake treatment has real therapeutic results, a phenomenon that is known as the placebo effect. In some cases, these placebos can exert an influence powerful enough to mimic the effects of real medical treatments. But the placebo effect is much more than just positive thinking. When this response to a fake treatment occurs, many patients have no idea that they are responding to what is essentially a sugar pill. Placebos are often utilized in medical research to help doctors and scientists discover and better understand the physiological and psychological effects of new medications. In order to understand why the placebo effect is important, it is essential to understand a bit more about how and why it works. What Is the Placebo Effect? The  placebo effect  is defined as a phenomenon in which some people experience a benefit after the administration of an inactive substance or sham treatment. What exactly is a placebo? A placebo is a substance with no known medical effects, such as sterile water, saline solution, or a sugar pill. A placebo is a fake treatment that in some cases can produce a very real response. Why do people experience real changes as a result of fake treatments? The expectations of the patient play a significant role in the placebo effect; the more a person expects the treatment to work, the more likely they are to exhibit a placebo response. In most cases, the person who does not know that the treatment they are receiving is actually a placebo. Instead, they believe that they are the recipient of the real treatment. The placebo is designed to seem exactly like the real treatment, whether it is a pill, injection, or consumable liquid, yet the substance has no actual effect on the illness or condition it purports to treat. It is important to note that a placebo and the placebo effect are different things. The term placebo refers to the inactive substance itself, while the term placebo effect refers to any effects of taking a medicine that cannot be attributed to the treatment itself. How Placebos Are Used in Medical Research In medical research, some patients in a study may be administered a placebo while other participants receive the actual treatment. The purpose of doing this is to determine whether or not the treatment has a real effect. If participants taking the actual drug demonstrate a significant improvement over those taking the placebo, the study can help support the claim for the drugs effectiveness. While a placebo has no effect on illness, it can have a very real effect on how some people feel. Just how strong this effect might be depends on a variety of factors. Some things that can influence the placebo effect include: The nature of the illnessHow strongly the patient believes the treatment will workThe type of response the patient expects to seeThe type of positive messages a doctor conveys about the treatments effectivenessGenes may also influence how people respond to placebo treatments One study suggested that some people may possess a genetic predisposition to respond more strongly to placebos. In the study, patients who either had high or low variations of a gene that controls dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex of the brain had differing responses to placebo. Those with the high-dopamine version of the gene were more likely to experience a response to a placebo treatment than did those with the low-dopamine version of the gene. Research has found that people with the high-dopamine version of this gene tend to also have higher levels of pain perception and reward-seeking. When testing out new medications and other treatment approaches, scientists are interested in learning about whether this new treatment has value for treating an illness that outweighs any potential risks. Through their research, they want to learn if the treatment is effective, the sort of side effects it might produce, which patients may benefit the most and whether it is more or less effective than other treatments that are already available. By comparing the effects of a treatment to a placebo, researchers hope to be able to determine if the effects of the medicine are due to the treatment itself or caused by some other variable. Advantages of Using a Placebo One of the major advantages of using a placebo in medical and psychological studies is that it allows researchers to eliminate or minimize the effect that expectations can have on the outcome. If researchers expect to find a certain result, they may unknowingly convey clues, known as demand characteristics, which might lead participants to guess what the researchers hope to find. As a result, participant behaviors can sometimes change. In order to minimize this, researchers sometimes conduct what is known as a double-blind study. Such studies involve both the experimenters and the participants being unaware of who is receiving the real treatment and who is receiving a false treatment. By minimizing the risk of subtle biases influencing the study, researchers are better able to look at how the effects of both the drug and the placebo. Examples For example, lets imagine that a participant has volunteered for a study to determine the effectiveness of a new headache drug. After taking the drug, she finds that her headache quickly dissipates, and she feels much better. However, she later learns that she was in the placebo group and that the drug she was given was just a sugar pill. One of the most studied and strongest placebo effects is in the reduction of pain. According to some estimates, approximately 30 to 60 percent of people will feel that their pain has diminished after taking a placebo pill. In some cases, even real medical treatments can benefit from the placebo effect. Researchers have found that how positively the effectiveness of a treatment is conveyed by a physician has an effect on how well patients respond to the treatment. The Placebo Effect in Psychology Experiments In a psychology experiment, a placebo is an inert treatment or substance that has no known effects. Researchers might utilize a placebo control group, which is a group of participants who are exposed to the placebo or fake independent variable. The impact of this placebo treatment is then compared to the results of the real  independent variable  of interest in the  experimental group. Even though placebos contain no real treatment, researchers have found they can have a variety of both physical and psychological effects. Participants in placebo groups have displayed changes in heart rate, blood pressure, anxiety levels, pain perception, fatigue, and even brain activity. These effects point to the brains role in health and well-being. Causes While researchers know that the placebo effect works, they do not yet fully understand exactly how and why this effect occurs. Research is ongoing as to why some people experience changes even when they are only receiving a placebo. A number of different factors may contribute to explanations for this phenomenon. Placebos May Trigger Hormone Responses One possible explanation is that taking the placebo triggered a release of endorphins. Endorphins have a structure similar to morphine and other opiate painkillers and act as the brains own natural painkillers. Researchers have been able to demonstrate the placebo effect in action using brain scans, showing that areas that contain many  opiate  receptors were activated in both the placebo and treatment groups. Naloxone is an opioid antagonist that blocks both natural endorphins and opioid drugs. Using naloxone, placebo pain relief is reduced. Expectations Can Influence Placebo Responses Other possible explanations include conditioning,  motivation, and expectation. In some cases, a placebo can be paired with an actual treatment until it comes to evoke the desired effect, an example of  classical conditioning. People who are highly motivated to believe that a treatment will work, or who had a treatment work previously, may be more likely to experience a placebo effect. A prescribing physicians enthusiasm for treatment can even impact how a patient response. If a doctor seems very positive that a treatment will have a desirable effect, a patient may be more likely to see benefits from taking the drug. This demonstrates that the placebo effect can even take place when a patient is taking real medications to treat an illness. Placebos Can Also Produce Side Effects Conversely, individuals can experience negative symptoms as a response to a placebo, a response that is sometimes referred to as the nocebo effect. For example, a patient might report having headaches, nausea or dizziness in response to a placebo. How Powerful Is the Placebo Effect? While the placebo effect can affect how patients feel, studies suggest that placebo effects do not have a significant impact on underlying illness. One major review of more than 200 studying involving the use of placebos found that the placebo had no major clinical effects on illness. Instead, the placebo effect had an influence on patient-reported outcomes, particularly of perceptions of nausea and pain. However, another review conducted three years later found that in similar populations, both placebos and treatments had similar effects. The authors concluded that placebos when used appropriately, could potentially benefit patients as part of a therapeutic plan. A Word From Verywell The placebo effect can have a powerful influence on how people feel, but it is important to remember that they are not a cure for an underlying condition. By using placebos in research, scientists are able to get a better idea of how treatments impact patients and whether new medications and treatment approaches are safe and effective.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

How Steinbeck Presents the Relationship Between George and...

How Steinbeck presents the relationship between George and Lennie in particular at the beginning and the end The relationship between Lennie and George is very close throughout the book. Of Mice and Men is set in the 1930s depression years in America. This means that their relationship was under a lot of strain. It was unusual in those times to be able to sustain friendships because life was all about living for the moment after America s great depression. They are in a place called the Salinas River near Soledad. John Steinbeck begins the novel Of Mice and Men with a picturesque description of the location where the reader is first introduced to the characters of George Milton and Lennie Small. The opening section of the†¦show more content†¦Lennie and George’s dream is presented by Steinbeck in order to convey their relationship: â€Å"George. Tell me. Please, George. Like you done before† This dream cannot exist without friendship. This is most demonstrable in the relationship between George and Lennie. Without the other, neither character would be able to maintain the dream. Lennie is constantly asking George to â€Å"tell about how it’s gonna be†. The constant repetition of the way things will be is what keeps the dream alive in Lennie. However, George needs Lennie just as much as Lennie needs him, which is apparent at the end of the novel. When George kills Lennie, he also kills the friendship, which results in the death of the dream within himself. Friendship is an underlying factor in the dreams of others as well. From anger and remorse to a close friendship, Steinbeck portrays many different aspects to Lennie and George’s relationship. It is the main theme in this novel and stands out as a clear point the author is trying to make. Their dream gives the reader an image of peacefulness between the two, they â€Å"got each other† and living â€Å"offa the fatta the lan†,’ is their aim. They know that they wouldn’t be able to achieve this without each other, Lennie needs George to plan the dream and George needs Lennie to keep it alive. In the end, the obstacles that Lennie has created are so terribleShow MoreRelatedOf Mice and Men - George and Lennie2356 Words   |  10 PagesHow does Steinbeck present the characters of George and Lennie? During the Great Depression of the 1930s when America was plunged into financial crisis following the Wall Street Crash of October 1929, levels of unemployment and poverty were at an all time high. In this ear life was a struggle and the mentality of society became survival of the fittest, every man for himself. Migrant workers toured the country in search of labour to provide money for food typically sent to relatives living on theRead MoreExplore the Ways in Which John Steinbeck Presents He Character of Lennie in ‘of Mice and Men’2183 Words   |  9 PagesExplore the ways in which John Steinbeck presents he character of Lennie in ‘Of Mice and Men’ In this essay I am going to be writing about one of the main characters in John Steinbeck’s novella ‘Of Mice and Men’. The story portrays the travels and arising problems of two migrant workers who share an uncommon friendship for the time and environment in which the novella is set. Lennie Small is the character I will be exploring and I will start off by giving a detailed explanation of his physicalRead MoreAnalyzing The Bonds Of Friendship Within Of Mice And Men2195 Words   |  9 Pagesthe Bonds of Friendship Within Of Mice and Men â€Å"Of mice and men† by John Steinbeck narrates a story of two friends, George and Lennie, and their lives together as farm workers in California in the 1930s. Steinbeck chose the setting to empathize the effects a simple friendship can have on someone living during that time period. In the 30s, in California, jobs were hard to get and most jobs for unlettered men like George and Lennie, was farm work. Because income was scarce, farm workers rarely had companionsRead MoreOf Mice and Men - the Importance of George Essay1858 Words   |  8 PagesSteinbecks novel, Of Mice and Men, the uniqueness of George, as a character, is already noticeable. He is described as small and quick, dark of face, with restless eyes and sharp strong features and has an obvious dominance over the relationship between Lennie and himself. This lets the reader know from a very early stage in the book that George is different, and probably the essential character. Georges character seems to be used by Steinbeck to reflect the major themes of the novel: loneliness

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Human Trafficking Is A Huge Problem In America - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1542 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2019/05/07 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Human Trafficking Essay Did you like this example? To the dismay of many people, human trafficking is a huge problem in America. Most people would like you to believe that things like that dont happen here, that is something that happens in other countries, poorer countries, not the U.S. of A. It has become such an epidemic here, that it can no longer be ignored. Though it is currently difficult to know the exact number of people that are victim to human trafficking due to it being a hidden crime, the US is currently ranked in the top 10 destinations for human trafficking. (Hepburn, Simon 2010) I would like to define human trafficking, as it is understood by Homeland Security so when it is mentioned it will be comprehended the same way throughout, Human trafficking is modern-day slavery and involves the use of force, fraud, or coercion to obtain some type of labor or commercial sex act. (dhs.gov) Though history would like for you to believe that slavery was abolished in 1838 after the American Civil War and the Emanci pation Proclamation that was signed by Abraham Lincoln. Unfortunately, none of that is true. There is more human slavery in the world today, than ever before. It is considered a low risk, high reward enterprise since it is hard to prove and convict compared to the amount of money that is made from it. One major difference between then and now would be that back then, human slaves were property and worth a monetary value. Whereas now there is no monetary value to the person, only what they can do to make the trafficker money. Once the slave becomes of no use, whether it is from health issues or an undesirable age, they are no longer making money, so they are easily replaced. Human trafficking is thought to be the third largest criminal activity following closely behind gun and drug trafficking. (Logan, Walker, Hunt 2009) It reportedly generates a profit of $32 billion every year, (dosomething.org) Though it seems that sex trafficking gets more attention in the media due t o it being more overdramatized; labor trafficking is more common and harder to prove in a court of law. One huge misconception about human trafficking is that a person has to be transported from one country to another to be considered trafficking, however, it can take place all in one country. There is an estimated 100,000-150,000 people that the US government believes to be kept in slavery here in America. (arkofhopeforchildren.org) Common factors that lead people to become victims is often extreme poverty, they may be born in to, they may be runaways living on the streets making them easy targets for kidnapping, or they may be tricked. When someone has grown up in poverty and they are offered an opportunity to either make a better life for themselves or their children, it makes them susceptible to any promises made of a better life. Often parents in poverty are persuaded with hope. Hope of a better life, better education, or even a better life here in America, they will se nd their child away with these strangers or companies, thinking they are doing their best for their children. Not fully understanding that once that child has been separated from his or her family, communication ties will be severed, and the child will be stuck with their captors. It has been documented that families have sold their younger children because they could not afford to raise them and they would use the money made to finish raising the older child, or children, that were of working age. Some victims have fallen prey to the darkness that is in the internet, people answering personal ads, and claiming to fall in love with that person over time. Once that person has the victim believing that love is the driving force, the victim will do anything to keep that love, even if it means sleeping with Johns for money. Runaways are easy prey for human traffickers due to their vulnerability. The traffickers watch, evaluate patterns of runaways living on the streets, then the trafficker will have a better idea of what could be the selling point to get that victim to go with them, it could be food, shelter, or promises of an endless supply of drugs. It is currently estimated that over 2,000 children a day go missing in America, that is approximately 750,000 per year. Of those numbers, only 24 percent are taken by strangers, otherwise known as stranger kidnapping, which gives you approximately 175,000 that go missing or possibly taken for human trafficking per year. (arkofhopeforchildren.org). That is just children, that doesnt include women and men that are also taken for slavery. Many of the victims believe that they are taking legitimate jobs like childcare, construction, or landscaping just to name a few. They may even come to America on work Visas, but once they get here, their Visas, passports, or identifying documentation gets confiscated. They are then lead to believe that if they work hard, make enough money for their captors, they can get their documents back. Some human trafficking may appear as a legitimate business of helping people find employment or relocation for employment. Contracts are made up by the company and signed by the victim, not fully aware of what they may have just got themselves into, but since a contract was signed, they fear it cannot be undone. Once victims have themselves in a human trafficking situation they may be afraid to leave. Captors often use threats of harming family members, deportation if they are in America illegally, being put in jail. Some victims may have the lack of knowledge about alternatives, they may be kept in isolation, they suffer physical abuse, or psychological confinement. Unfortunately, in some countries it is believed that some governments or law enforcement agencies are involved or have knowledge of ongoing human trafficking events and are paid nicely to look the other way. So, if someone is here illegally, they may have several fears that prevent the m from seeking help from the law enforcement. They could be afraid of deportation, fear of not being believed, or fear that if they ask law enforcement for help, they will be turned back over to their captors and punished severely. Also, if they are involved in illegally activities here in America, they may fear being punished for collateral misconduct. Other victims may not leave the situation that they are in because they have no money, no family, nowhere else to go, which may seem worse than the situation that they are in currently. Traffickers often use shame to control their victims. So even if the victim were to get free, they have so much self-shame, they believe their families will disown them or potentially not love them anymore because of what they have done, even though the things they have done were against their will. Sometimes victims may not even realize they are victims of human trafficking and continue living the life they have grown accustom to. Its hard to believe that this crime goes unnoticed more than any other crime, since no many people are involved. What makes this crime different though is that it is hard to identify. Especially if law enforcement isnt trained on what to look for, because they themselves dont believe it could be happening in their community. People that may be here illegally may fear there will be a prejudice held against them because they arent American. They may believe they do not have rights here because they are not American. Victims that are found during law enforcement raids are often deported or arrested without a thorough evaluation about whether or no they are trafficking victims. Not only does this fail to protect and assist potential victims of trafficking but also the deportation of critical witnesses (i.e., trafficking victims) significantly weakens the case against their traffickers. (Hepburn Simon, 2010) Without educating our communities, our children, local law enforcement, along wi th the legality system this crime will not go away. It will not go away even if we turn a blind eye, or pretend it doesnt happen in our country. We must start educating people and talking about the dangers that lurk in the world. If something seems too good to be true, it most likely is too good. Children need to be taught to trust their instincts, maybe even learn to fear strangers, like it was taught to me, stranger danger. No one is truly safe from becoming a victim of human trafficking. Especially if they threaten the lives or wellbeing of families, most people will do anything to protect their families. Society has to stop being afraid of law enforcement. They were always known as the good guys and now somehow all of that has changed over time. The government needs to set a standard so that law enforcement agencies dont have a lack of knowledge about identifying crime of human trafficking, most agencies dont have specific policies, procedures, and training addressing human trafficking. (Wilson, Walsh, Kleuber, 2006) Those agencies that do have it dont have a standardization, which could also complicate taking these cases to trail. If there was more of a black and white standard, then maybe there could be a higher conviction rating. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Human Trafficking Is A Huge Problem In America" essay for you Create order

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

CHEM Lab Free Essays

Another source of error is that possibly the ice and salt did not get to a low enough temperature, but again I would think this would alter the results giving a higher temperature instead of a lower one. Something that would give too low a temperature is if the thermometer bulb was directly on the test tube, and the temperature decreased because of the ice/salt mixture instead of the alcohol/water mixture. This is what probably happened in my experiment. We will write a custom essay sample on CHEM Lab or any similar topic only for you Order Now Another thing that would cause the temperature to be too low is contamination in the alcohol, contributing more solute to the solution than expected. Using table salt and road salt, how would you design an experiment to determine which of these affected the boiling point of water the most? Which substance do you expect will affect it the most and why? Procedure: Weight out 1 g of salt and put it in ml of water in a test tube. Put a thermometer in and put the test tube over a Bunsen burner, recording the temperature till it boils. Assuming equal masses (1 g each) of salt, the table salt should affect it more because sodium is smaller than calcium and there would be more moles of table salt in g than there would be of road salt. Conclusion: Freezing point depression occurs when a solute is dissolved in a solvent. The solute makes the freezing point of the solvent decrease. How much the freezing point decreases depends on the immolate of the solute. The higher the immolate, the more the freezing point will decrease. The solute molecules interfere with the solvent freezing, and so the solution will have to get colder to freeze than the pure substance would. There was a large percent error in this experiment. There were a number of things the test tube and got too cold from the ice/salt mixture on the outside of the test be. Some other sources of error are measuring the alcohol or the water incorrectly. The graduated cylinder is not very accurate when measuring small amounts such as 2 ml. Some of the alcohol could have evaporated during the experiment since it is so volatile. There could have been some contamination in the alcohol, such as other solutes, that would contribute to the decrease in freezing point. I used 91% spoilsport alcohol instead of 70%, and this may be a cause of error as well. The formula holds only for relatively small amounts of solute, and maybe the 91% was too much. This experiment did not turn out as well as I had hoped. Perhaps if there were a way to keep the thermometer off of the test tube itself so that it doesn’t get so cold, that would be a better procedure. Perhaps if you could cork the test tube (if it were a large enough one to fit a cork in it) with a hole for the thermometer, then the cork would hold the thermometer in the solution instead of having it touch the sides of the test tube. No matter the numerical results of the experiment, I did learn a lot more about freezing point depression than I had known previously. That aspect of the experiment was successful. How to cite CHEM Lab, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Research Critique Infection Prevention Behaviours

Question: Discuss about theResearch Critique for Infection Prevention Behaviours. Answer: Research Critique: Research critique is the critique who is getting involved to find out weakness of the research article. All the time a research article contributes an endeavour to find out a solution through the research activity. The solution may not be get reached all the time but the effort need to be authentic a research critique took and endeavour to jugged the authenticity of the research enterprise and offer suggestion to the future enterprises in that same direction by finding out the lacunas or the shortcoming of the previous research (Glanz,. and Bishop, 2010). A critical appreciation of the article Infection prevention as a show: A qualitative study of nurses infection prevention behaviours contributed by Carole Jackson ,Karen Lowton, Peter Griffiths will help to develop a proper understanding to reader as well as the future researcher regarding the effectiveness of the article and its exact contribution to the selected field. At first it is important to adopt a perspective to judge the article from the perspective of the hypothesis of the research. The key issue of this research is to find out the exact nature of non compliance and inappropriate behaviour. The hypothesis of this research is non compliance and inappropriate behaviour is one of the major cause of the dispersion of infection( Glass,. and McAtee, 2006) The research took an attempt to articulate the exact nature of non compliance and inappropriate behaviour. According to this context it can be said that the researchers remain focus to the stated hypothesis all throughout the research process. The research findings are consistent with the research direction given by the hypothesis. Aim of the research to is to find out the root causes of the dispersion of infection through the human behaviour. In this research the researchers selected a particular community for their research. The nurses are the health care professional with required qualification and professional training it also the truth that they are the people with interact with infectious person consciously. From that context one assumption can be made on the basis of vigilance this community soups to retain some professional code. The focus community of the researchers doesnt represent the mainstream population of the society. In research hypothesis there is a indication towar ds the generic behavioural practice of the common people but the health care professionals do not belong to that category(Whitley, Kite, and Adams, 2012). From this observation it can be said that the research findings may not represent the exact scenario of the behavioural practice of the common masses. The finding and the discussion section of this research article made an elaborate discussion regarding the practice of health care professional and also incorporated some subjective statements belong to them but didnt made a single indication towards the Psychological theory of Cognitive dissonance and the concept of defence mechanism. The appropriation of behaviour is largely depend up on human psychology rather than social process of reinforcement. The researcher adopted an exclusive angle towards a certain trained and qualified community and eluded the social reality. The infection may get dispersed through the inappropriate behaviour may belong to the any corner of the human com munity not from the health care professional only (Parens, Chapman,. and Press, 2006). The introduction of the article echoed the utterance made in the hypothesis and attempted to justify the stand point adopted by the researchers. The major contradiction of the whole depiction is the hypothesis described the result of certain behavioural trait in an uncontrolled atmosphere. Uncontrolled atmosphere always governs by norm that regulate society but the health care setting is a controlled atmosphere that is regulated by the code of standardization and subjected to audit on the demand of the situation. The possibility and practice of reinforcement is plausible here. Introduction attempted to justify a rational stance for an irrational choice. In research finding the issue of rationalising the irrational, got reflected the research made an in-depth analysis of the behavioural detail of the nurse community. In this course of research the researchers have taken interviews of the nurse and health professionals and collected their behavioural details for the regular practice. T he question of compliance arises in that point of time. The mechanical nature of human behaviour is lying beneath the regular movement of the individuals (Patton, 2005. ). The whole research should get governs by the psychological theories rather than sporadic information regarding the practice of health care. The major aim of any researches enterprise is to generalise the findings of research. Controlled environment is needed for certain research practice that demands environmental intervention to achieve the findings but if the controlled environment is the base of the research the findings of the research cannot work as a generalised articulation of certain common behavioural trait the whole research has been confined within certain community and representing the common trait of human behaviour The point of contr5adiction is coming out of that. The research is putting emphasise on the qualitative sampling rather than quantitative one. In order to find out the qualitative informat ion the research put more emphasis on the interview and the personal experiences of the individual.. This process will not articulate the common trend of practice. In finding the researchers indicated few points those belong to the common human nature. The issue of rationalising the irrational activity of some one or finding out irrationality in the behavioural approach of the other people rather than self are the common manifestation of the concept of cognitive dissonance. If the researcher adopt the process of Psychoanalysis rather qualitative questioner the approach of an individual will articulate the truth that can be coon and the generalization of the finding can be taken place that kindle the possibility of the farter research (Schulsinger,Mednick,. and Knop, 2012). Conclusion: In conclusion it can be said that the behavioural inconsistency not only caused the social disorder but public health disorder too that is the reason this type of research endeavour can add value to the cognitive practice of the academia. The cardinal goal of these cognitive practice should be the application of the cognitive finding for the betterment of the human life that is the reason the applied side of the research should get incorporated. 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